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By Kenneth C. Fugelsang (auth.)

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1-3). Instances of bacteriophage-induced stuck MLF appear to be random in occurrence. This may result from the relatively low bacterial population density (10 6-10 7 CFU/mL) compared with starter cultures at 109 CFU/mL. Because phage infection requires identification of unique receptor site(s) on the bacterial cell wall, the use of alternate or multiple-strain LAB cultures may preclude or mitigate stuck MLF (Cone, 1995 personal communication). 4 LAB SPOILAGE As alluded to earlier, native LAB species arriving with the fruit or already present in the winery may not be directly competitive during the course of alcoholic fermentation.

Aggregations of cells may differentially impact the staining, neutralization, and counterstaining process, resulting in interpretational difficulties. 3. The initial fixation of cells to the slide by heat should be done with two to - three quick passes of the slide over the flame of a bunsen burner and not prolonged exposure. Also avoid the temptation to accelerate the drying process by exposing the preparation directly to heat from the flame. 4. Gram staining, and staining in general, may be a messy operation.

Likely, inherent chemical and physical properties of the wine as well as the species/strain of LAB are important considerations. Davis et al. (1988) compared various strains of LAB with respect to glycerol utilization. They reported that of 71 strains of Leuconostoc oenos examined, only 1 utilized glycerol which supports their earlier observation that glycerol conversion was not seen in Australian wine following MLF. By comparison, 2 (of 17 strains examined) of P. parvulus and 4 (of 13 strains examined) of Lactobacillus sp.

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