By Georges Belfort (auth.), João G. Crespo, Karl W. Böddeker (eds.)
The chapters of this ebook are dependent upon lectures offered on the NATO complicated examine Institute on Membrane techniques in Separation and Purification (March 21 - April 2, 1993, Curia, Portugal), equipped as a successor and replace to an identical Institute that came about 10 years in the past (p.M.Bungay, H.K. Lonsdale, M.N. de Pinho (Eds.): artificial Membranes: technological know-how, Engineering and functions, NATO ASI sequence, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1986). the last decade among the 2 NATO Institutes witnesses the transition from separately researched membrane methods to an utilized and demonstrated membrane separation expertise, as is mirrored via the contents of the corresponding continuing volumes. almost always, the 1st quantity offers itself as a textbook on membrane methods, nonetheless legitimate, whereas the current quantity makes a speciality of components of separation want as amenable to membrane processing: Biotechnology and Environmental expertise. as a result, the contributions to this quantity are grouped into "Membranes in Biotechnology" (11 papers), "Membranes in Environmental know-how" (6 papers), and "New techniques" (4 papers). this is often by way of one contribution every one on "Energy necessities" and "Education", i.e., membrane procedures inside a tutorial curriculum. The publication therefore quantities to a cutting-edge of utilized membrane processing and should good increase the extra primary method of its predecessor.
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Extra resources for Membrane Processes in Separation and Purification
Cw is typically 5 to 50 times larger than Cb. and as a consequence, the viscosity in the boundary layer may be several orders of magnitude larger than in the bulk. The ratio D/O is the mass transfer coefficient through the boundary layer. In theory and by analogy with heat transfer, this coefficient can be calculated using formulas derived from dimensionless analysis. For example. 3) IV-19 Such formulas are derived assuming constant properties across the boundary layer and are often inadequate.
A steady state should be reached when membrane and fouling layer have the same retention. (figure 6b). TIme Figure 6b. Fouling model with an increase of the deposited area. This would be typically the case during the progress of one monolayer adsorption. At time t, the deposits covers a fraction e of the surface. The total solvent flux is then : = J (l-e(t» AP/Rm + e(t) M>/(Rm+Rf) IV-3 ifR f is the resistance of the fouling layer. In the absence of concentration polarisation, the flux of solute through the membrane is: IV-4 JCp = C [(1-e(t»AP/Rm(1-Trm) + e(t) M>/(Rm+Rf)(l-Trf) with Trf is the retention by the fouled surface.
Chicago. 79. Brors, A and Kroner, K. H. (1990) "Electro-crossflow filtration of microbial suspensions", Proceedings ICOM, 1:616, Chicago. 26 80. Grimshaw, P. , Grodzinsky, A. , Yarmush, M. L. and Yarmush, D. M. (1989) "Dynamic membranes for protein transport: chemical and electrical control", Chern. Engng. Sci. 44:827. 81. , Hoare, M. and Dunnill, P. (1986) "The effect of protein precipitation on the concentration of proteins by ultrafiltration", Chern. Eng. Commun. 45:255. 82. Bentham, A. , Treton, M.