By R. F. Schmidt (auth.), Robert F. Schmidt (eds.)
Again speedy advances within the mind sciences have made it worthwhile, after just a couple of years, to factor a revised variation of this article. the entire chapters were reviewed and taken modern, and a few were mostly rewritten. the main revision has happened within the chap ters at the autonomic worried method and the integrative services of the significant frightened method. yet within the dialogue of the motor structures and different matters to boot, contemporary insights have necessitated definite conceptual variations. within the description of the autonomic apprehensive process, the function of the intestinal innervation has been introduced out extra truly than sooner than. additionally, there's a new presentation of the body structure of soft muscle fibers, and extra cognizance has been paid to the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors, due to the expanding healing signifi cance of the at f3 receptor proposal. a considerable part at the genital reflexes in guy and girl, together with the extragenital adjustments in the course of copulation, has additionally been further. The textual content at the integrative features of the crucial anxious process has been accelerated to incorporate, for the 1st time, fabric on mind metabolism and blood move and their dependence at the task of the mind. Reference can also be made to contemporary result of study on break up mind and aphasic sufferers and on reminiscence, in addition to at the physiol ogy of sound asleep and dreaming.
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64), the action potentials can also be recorded by extracellular electrodes placed near the cell. However, this procedure usually permits only an approximate determination of the time course of the action potential. 0 0 2 3 ms 4 5 0 100 200 300 ms Fig. 2-10. Action potentials of various types of cells measured by intracellular electrodes. Abscissa: time after start of action potential; ordinate: membrane potential. The time scale of the action potentials varies considerably. The nerve action potential of the cat is much shorter than the muscle action potential of the rat, and both are short relative to the action potential of the cardiac muscle.
Role of CI- in the Resting Potential. The representation of the resting potential as a potassium equilibrium potential must be amended to take account of the fact that the chloride ions are also involved. The membranes are in fact also permeable to CI- ions. In nerve cells the permeability to CI- is less than that to K +, but in muscle cells it is much greater than that to K+. The concentration ratio of chloride ions inside and outside the cell, CI- ;/CI- 0, is usually reciprocal to the corresponding concentration ratio K\/K + 0 (see Table 2-1).
The excitation lasts only a short while, usually less than 1 ms. It is thus comparable to an explosion that dies away very quickly. The depolarization phase of the action potential itself sets processes . in motion that restore the resting membrane charge. The excitationinduced depolarization phase of the action potential is followed by a spontaneous repolarization to the resting potential. The stereotyped, cyclic sequence of the action potential can be compared with the operating cycle of a cylinder in an internal combustion engine: an ignition spark heats the gas mixture to a level (corresponding to the threshold of the action potential) at which it explodes (corresponding to excitation).